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英语专业八级(阅读理解)练习试题及答案
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AsGilbertWhite,Darwin,andothersobservedlongago,allspeciesappeartohavetheinnatecapacitytoincreasetheirnumbersfromgenerationtogeneration.Thetaskforecologistsistountangletheenvironmentaandbiologicalfactorsthatholdthisintrinsiccapacityforpopulationgrowthincheckoverthelongrun.Thegreatvarietyofdynamicbehaviorsexhibitedbydifferentpopulationmakesthistaskmoredifficult:sompopulationsremainroughlyconstantfromyeartoyear;othersexhibitregularcyclesofabundanceandscarcity;stillothersvarywildly,withoutbreaksandcrashesthatareinsomecasesplainlycorrelatedwiththeweather,andinothercasesnot.Toimposesomeorderonthiskaleidoscopeofpatterns,oneschoolofthoughtproposesdividingpopulationsintotwogroups.Theseecologistspositthattherelativelysteadypopulationshavedensity-dependentgrowthparameters;thatis,ratesofbirth,death,andmigrationwhichdependstronglyonpopulationdensity.Thehighlyvaryingpopulationshavedensity-independentgrowthparameters,withvitalratesbuffetedbyenvironmentalevents;theseratesfluctuateinawaythatiswhollyindependentofpopulationdensity.Thisdichotomyhasitsuses,butitcancauseproblemsiftakentooliterally.Foronething,nopopulationcanbedrivenentirelybydensity-independentfactorsallthetime.Nomatterhowseverelyorunpredictablybirth,death,andmigrationratesmaybefluctuatingaroundtheirlong-termaverages,iftherewerenodensity-dependenteffects,thepopulationwould,inthelongrun,eitherincreaseordecreasewithoutbound(barringamiraclebywhichgainsandlossescanceledexactly)。Putanotherway,itmaybethatonaverage99percentofalldeathsinapopulationarisefromdensity-independentcauses,andonlyonepercentfromfactorsvaryingwithdensity.Thefactorsmakinguptheonepercentmayseemunimportant,andtheircausemaybecorrespondinglyhardtodetermine.Yet,whetherrecognizedornot,theywillusuallydeterminethelong-termaveragepopulationdensity.Inordertounderstandthenatureoftheecologist’sinvestigation,wemaythinkofthedensity-dependenteffectsongrowthparametersasthesignalecologistsaretryingtoisolateandinterpret,onethattendstomakethepopulationincreasefromrelativelylowvaluesordecreasefromrelativelyhighones,whilethedensity-independenteffectsacttoproducenoiseinthepopulationdynamics.Forpopulationsthatremainrelativelyconstant,orthatoscillatearoundrepeatedcycles,thesignalcanbefairlyeasilycharacterizedanditseffectsdescribed,eventhoughthecausativebiologicalmechanismmayremainunknown.Forirregularlyfluctuatingpopulations,wearelikelytohavetoofewobservationstohaveanyhopeofextractingthesignalfromtheoverwhelmingnoise.Butitnowseemsclearthatallpopulationsareregulatedbyamixtureofdensity-dependentanddensity-independenteffectsinvaryingproportions.

1.Theauthorofthetextisprimarilyconcernedwith

[A]Discussingtwocategoriesoffactorsthatcontrolpopulationgrowthandassessingtheirrelativeimportance.

[B]Describinghowgrowthratesinnaturalpopulationsfluctuateovertimeandexplainingwhythesechangesoccur.

[C]Proposingahypothesisconcerningpopulationsizeandsuggestingwaystotestit.

[D]Posingafundamentalquestionaboutenvironmentalfactorsinpopulationgrowthandpresentingsomecurrentlyacceptedanswer.

2.Itcanbeinferredfromthetextthattheauthorconsidersthedichotomydiscussedtobe

[A]Applicableonlytoerraticallyfluctuatingpopulations.

[B]instrumental,butonlyifitslimitationsarerecognized.

[C]Dangerouslymisleadinginmostcircumstances.

[D]Acompleteandsufficientwaytoaccountforobservedphenomena.

3.tothetext,allofthefollowingbehaviorshavebeenexhibitedbydifferentpopulationsEXCEPT

[A]Roughlyconstantpopulationlevelsfromyeartoyear.

[B]Regularcyclesofincreasesanddecreasesinnumbers.

[C]Erraticincreasesinnumberscorrelatedwiththeweather.

[D]Uncheckedincreasesinnumbersovermanygenerations.

4.Thediscussionconcerningpopulationinthethirdparagraphservesprimarilyto

[A]Demonstratethedifficultiesecologistsfaceinstudyingdensity-dependentfactorslimitingpopulationgrowth.

[B]Advocatemorerigorousstudyofdensity-dependentfactorsinpopulationgrowth.

[C]Provethatthedeathratesofanypopulationareneverentirelydensity-independent.

[D]underlinetheimportanceofevensmalldensity-dependentfactorsinregulatinglong-termpopulationdensities.

5.Inthetext,theauthordoesallofthefollowingEXCEPT

[A]Citetheviewsofotherbiologists.

[B]Defineabasicproblemthatthetextaddresses.

[C]Presentconceptualcategoriesusedbyotherbiologists.

[D]Describetheresultsofaparticularstudy.

BernardBailynhasrecentlyreinterpretedtheearlyhistoryoftheUnitedStatesbyapplyingnewsocialresearchfindingsontheexperiencesofEuropeanmigrants.Inhisreinterpretation,migrationbecomestheorganizingprincipleforrewritingthehistoryofpreindustrialNorthAmerica.Hisapproachrestsonfourseparatepropositions.ThefirstoftheseassertsthatresidentsofearlymodernEnglandmovedregularlyabouttheircountryside;migratingtotheNewWorldwassimplyanaturalspillover.AlthoughatfirstthecoloniesheldlittlepositiveattractionfortheEnglishDtheywouldratherhavestayedhomeDbytheeighteenthcenturypeopleincreasinglymigratedtoAmericabecausetheyregardeditasthelandofopportunity.Secondly,Bailynholdsthat,contrarytothenotionthatusedtoflourishinAmericahistorytextbooks,therewasneveratypicalNewWorldcommunity.Forexample,theeconomicanddemographiccharacterofearlyNewEnglandtownsvariedconsiderably.Bailyn'sthirdpropositionsuggesttwogeneralpatternsprevailingamongthemanythousandsofmigrants:onegroupcameasindenturedservants,anothercametoacquireland.Surprisingly,Bailynsuggeststhatthosewhorecruitedindenturedservantswerethedrivingforcesoftransatlanticmigration.ThesecolonialentrepreneurshelpeddeterminethesocialcharacterofpeoplewhocametopreindustrialNorthAmerica.Atfirst,thousandsofunskilledlaborerswererecruited;bythe1730's,however,Americanemployersdemandedskilledartisans.Finally,Bailynarguesthatthecolonieswereahalf-civilizedhinterlandoftheEuropeanculturesystem.HeisundoubtedlycorrecttoinsistthatthecolonieswerepartofanAnglo-Americanempire.ButtodividetheempireintoEnglishcoreandcolonialperiphery,asBailyndoes,devaluestheachievementsofcolonialculture.Itistrue,asBailynclaims,thathighcultureinthecoloniesnevermatchedthatinEngland.Butwhatofseventeenth-centuryNewEngland,wherethesettlerscreatedeffectivelaws,builtadistinguisheduniversity,andpublishedbooksBailynmightrespondthatNewEnglandwasexceptional.However,theideasandinstitutionsdevelopedbyNewEnglandPuritanshadpowerfuleffectsonNorthAmericanculture.AlthoughBailyngoesontoapplyhisapproachtosomethousandsofindenturedservantswhomigratedjustpriortotherevolution,hefailstolinktheirexperiencewiththepoliticaldevelopmentoftheUnitedStates.Evidencepresentedinhisworksuggestshowwemightmakesuchaconnection.TheseindenturedservantsweretreatedasslavesfortheperiodduringwhichtheyhadsoldtheirtimetoAmericanemployers.Itisnotsurprisingthatassoonastheyservedtheirtimetheypassedupgoodwagesinthecitiesandheadedwesttoensuretheirpersonalindependencebyacquiringland.Thus,itisinthewestthatapeculiarlyAmericanpoliticalculturebegan,amongcolonistswhoweresuspiciousofauthorityandintenselyanti-aristocratic.

1.WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutmigrantstocolonialNorthAmericaissupportedbyinformationinthetext

[A]AlargerpercentageofmigrantstocolonialNorthAmericacameasindenturedservantsthanasfreeagentsinterestedinacquiringland.

[B]Migrantswhocametothecoloniesasindenturedservantsweremoresuccessfulatmakingalivelihoodthanwerefarmersandartisans.

[C]MigrantstocolonialNorthAmericaweremoresuccessfulatacquiringtheirownlandduringtheeighteenthcenturythanduringtheseventeenthcentury.

[D]Bythe1730's,migrantsalreadyskilledinatradewereinmoredemandbyAmericanemployersthanwereunskilledlaborers.

2.TheauthorofthetextstatesthatBailynfailedto

[A]GivesufficientemphasistotheculturalandpoliticalinterdependenceofthecoloniesandEngland.

[B]DescribecarefullyhowmigrantsofdifferentethnicbackgroundspreservedtheircultureintheUnitedStates.

[C]TakeadvantageofsocialresearchontheexperiencesofcolonistswhomigratedtocolonialNorthAmericaspecificallytoacquireland.

[D]RelatetheexperienceofthemigrantstothepoliticalvaluesthateventuallyshapedthecharacteroftheUnitedStates.

3.Whichofthefollowingbestsummarizestheauthor'sevaluationofBailyn'sfourthproposition

[A]Itistotallyimplausible.

[B]Itispartiallyacceptable.

[C]Itishighlyadmirable.

[D]Itiscontroversialthoughpersuasive.

4.Accordingtothetext,BailynandtheauthoragreeonwhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutthecultureofcolonialNewEngland

[A]HighcultureinNewEnglandneverequaledthehighcultureofEngland.

[B]TheculturalachievementsofcolonialNewEnglandhavegenerallybeenunrecognizedbyhistorians.

[C]ThecolonistsimitatedthehighcultureofEngland,anddidnotdevelopaculturethatwasuniquelytheirown.

[D]ThesoutherncoloniesweregreatlyinfluencedbythehighcultureofNewEngland.

5.TheauthorofthetextwouldbemostlikelytoagreewithwhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutBailyn'swork

[A]BailynunderestimatestheeffectsofPuritanthoughtonNorthAmericanculture.

[B]BailynoveremphasizestheeconomicdependenceofthecoloniesonGreatBritain.

[C]Bailyn'sdescriptionofthecoloniesaspartofanAnglo-Americanempireismisleadingandincorrect.

[D]BailynfailedtotesthispropositionsonaspecificgroupofmigrantstocolonialNorthAmerica.

RogerRosenblatt’sbookBlackFiction,inattemptingtoapplyliteraryratherthansociopoliticalcriteriatoitssubject,successfullyalterstheapproachtakenbymostpreviousstudies.AsRosenblattnotes,criticismofBlackwritinghasoftenservedasapretextforexpoundingonBlackhistory.AddisonGayle’srecentwork,forexample,judgesthevalueofBlackfictionbyovertlypoliticalstandards,ratingeachworkaccordingtothenotionsofBlackidentitywhichitpropounds.Althoughfictionassuredlyspringsfrompoliticalcircumstances,itsauthorsreacttothosecircumstancesinwaysotherthanideological,andtalkingaboutnovelsandstoriesprimarilyasinstrumentsofideologycircumventsmuchofthefictionalenterprise.Rosenblatt’sliteraryanalysisdisclosesaffinitiesandconnectionsamongworksofBlackfictionwhichsolelypoliticalstudieshaveoverlookedorignored.WritingacceptablecriticismofBlackfiction,however,presupposesgivingsatisfactoryanswerstoanumberofquestions.Firstofall,isthereasufficientreason,otherthanthefacialidentityoftheauthors,togrouptogetherworksbyBlackauthorsSecond,howdoesBlackfictionmakeitselfdistinctfromothermodernfictionwithwhichitislargelycontemporaneousRosenblattshowsthatBlackfictionconstitutesadistinctbodyofwritingthathasanidentifiable,coherentliterarytradition.LookingatnovelswrittenbyBlackoverthelasteightyyears,hediscoversrecurringconcernsanddesignsindependentofchronology.Thesestructuresarethematic,andtheyspring,notsurprisingly,fromthecentralfactthattheBlackcharactersinthesenovelsexistinapredominantlywhiteculture,whethertheytrytoconformtothatcultureorrebelagainstit.BlackFictiondoesleavesomeaestheticquestionsopen.Rosenblatt’sthematicanalysispermitsconsiderableobjectivity;heevenexplicitlystatesthatitisnothisintentiontojudgethemeritofthevariousworksDyethisreluctanceseemsmisplaced,especiallysinceanattempttoappraisemighthaveledtointerestingresults.Forinstance,someofthenovelsappeartobestructurallydiffuse.Isthisadefect,oraretheauthorsworkingoutof,ortryingtoforge,adifferentkindofaestheticInaddition,thestyleofsomeBlacknovels,likeJeanToomey’sCane,vergesonexpressionismorsurrealism;doesthistechniqueprovideacounterpointtotheprevalentthemethatportraysthefateagainstwhichBlackheroesarepitted,athemeusuallyconveyedbymorenaturalisticmodesofexpressionInspiteofsuchomissions,whatRosenblattdoesincludeinhisdiscussionmakesforanastuteandworthwhilestudy.BlackFictionsurveysawidevarietyofnovels,bringingtoourattentionintheprocesssomefascinatingandlittle-knownworkslikeJamesWeldonJohnson’sAutobiographyofanEx-ColoredMan.Itsargumentistightlyconstructed,anditsforthright,lucidstyleexemplifieslevelheadedandpenetratingcriticism.

1.Theauthorofthetextisprimarilyconcernedwith__________.

[A]Evaluatingthesoundnessofaworkofcriticism.[B]Comparingvariouscriticalapproachestoasubject.

[C]Discussingthelimitationsofaparticularkindofcriticism.

[D]Summarizingthemajorpointsmadeinaworkofcriticism.

2.TheauthorofthetextbelievesthatBlackFictionwouldhavebeenimprovedhadRosenblatt__________.

[A]EvaluatedmorecarefullytheideologicalandhistoricalaspectsofBlackfiction.

[B]AttemptedtobemoreobjectiveinhisapproachtonovelsandstoriesbyBlackauthors.

[C]ExploreingreaterdetailtherecurrentthematicconcernsofBlackfictionthroughoutitshistory.

[D]Assessedtherelativeliterarymeritofthenovelsheanalyzesthematically.

3.author’sdiscussionofBlackFictioncanbebestdescribedas__________.

[A]Pedanticandcontentious.

[B]Criticalbutadmiring.

[C]Ironicanddeprecating.

[D]Argumentativebutunfocused.authorofthetextemploysallofthefollowinginthediscussionofRosenblatt’s

4.bookEXCEPT:__________.

[A]Rhetoricalquestions.

[B]Specificexamples.

[C]Comparisonandcontrast.

[D]Definitionofterms.

5.TheauthorofthetextreferstoJamesWeldonJohnson’sAutobiographyofanEx-ColoredManmostprobablyinorderto__________.

[A]pointoutaffinitiesbetweenRosenblatt’smethodofthematicanalysisandearliercriticism.

[B]Clarifythepointaboutexpressionisticstylemadeearlierinthepassage.

[C]QualifytheassessmentofRosenblatt’sbookmadeinthefirstparagraphofthepassage.

[D]giveaspecificexampleofoneoftheaccomplishmentsofRosenblatt’swork.

Themajorityofsuccessfulseniormanagersdonotcloselyfollowtheclassicalrationalmodeloffirstclarifyinggoals,assessingtheproblem,formulatingoptions,estimatinglikelihoodsofsuccess,makingadecision,andonlythentakingactiontoimplementthedecision.Rather,intheirday-by-daytacticalmaneuvers,theseseniorexecutivesrelyonwhatisvaguelytermedintuitiontomanageanetworkofinterrelatedproblemsthatrequirethemtodealwithambiguity,inconsistency,novelty,andsurprise;andtointegrateactionintotheprocessofthinking.Generationsofwritersonmanagementhaverecognizedthatsomepracticingmanagersrelyheavilyonintuition.Ingeneral,however,suchwritersdisplayapoorgraspofwhatintuitionis.Someseeitastheoppositeofrationality;othersviewitasanexcuseforcapriciousness.Isenberg'srecentresearchonthecognitiveprocessesofseniormanagersrevealsthatmanagers'intuitionisneitherofthese.Rather,seniormanagersuseintuitioninatleastfivedistinctways.First,theyintuitivelysensewhenaproblemexists.Second,managersrelyonintuitiontoperformwell-learnedbehaviorpatternsrapidly.Thisintuitionisnotarbitraryorirrational,butisbasedonyearsofpainstakingpracticeandhands-onexperiencethatbuildskills.Athirdfunctionofintuitionistosynthesizeisolatedbitsmofdataandpracticeintoanintegratedpicture,ofteninanAha!experience.Fourth,somemanagersuseintuitionasacheckontheresultsofmorerationalanalysis.Mostseniorexecutivesarefamiliarwiththeformaldecisionanalysismodelsandtools,andthosewhousesuchsystematicmethodsforreachingdecisionsareoccasionallyleeryofsolutionssuggestedbythesemethodswhichruncountertotheirsenseofthecorrectcourseofaction.Finally,managerscanuseintuitiontobypassin-depthanalysisandmoverapidlytoengenderaplausiblesolution.Usedinthisway,intuitionisanalmostinstantaneouscognitiveprocessinwhichamanagerrecognizesfamiliarpatterns.Oneoftheimplicationsoftheintuitivestyleofexecutivemanagementisthatthinkingisinseparablefromacting.Sincemanagersoftenknowwhatisrightbeforetheycananalyzeandexplainit,theyfrequentlyactfirstandexplainlater.Analysisisinextricablytiedtoactioninthinking/actingcycles,inwhichmanagersdevelopthoughtsabouttheircompaniesandorganizationsnotbyanalyzingaproblematicsituationandthenacting,butbyactingandanalyzingincloseconcert.Giventhegreatuncertaintyofmanyofthemanagementissuesthattheyface,seniormanagersofteninstigateacourseofactionsimplytolearnmoreaboutanissue.Theythenusetheresultsoftheactiontodevelopamorecompleteunderstandingoftheissue.Oneimplicationofthinking/actingcyclesisthatactionisoftenpartofdefiningtheproblem,notjustofimplementingthesolution.

1.Accordingtothetext,seniormanagersuseintuitioninallofthefollowingwaysEXCEPTto

[A]Speedupofthecreationofasolutiontoaproblem.

[B]Identifyaproblem.

[C]Bringtogetherdisparatefacts.

[D]Stipulatecleargoals.

2.Thetextsuggestswhichofthefollowingaboutthewritersonmanagementmentionedinline1,paragraph2

[A]Theyhavecriticizedmanagersfornotfollowingtheclassicalrationalmodelofdecisionanalysis.

[B]Theyhavenotbasedtheiranalysesonasufficientlylargesampleofactualmanagers.

[C]Theyhavereliedindrawingtheirconclusionsonwhatmanagerssayratherthanonwhatmanagersdo.

[D]Theyhavemisunderstoodhowmanagersuseintuitioninmakingbusinessdecisions.

3.ItcanbeinferredfromthetextthatwhichofthefollowingwouldmostprobablybeonemajordifferenceinbehaviorbetweenManagerX,whousesintuitiontoreachdecisions,andManagerY,whousesonlyformaldecisionanalysis

[A]ManagerXanalyzesfirstandthenacts;ManagerYdoesnot.

[B]ManagerXcheckspossiblesolutionstoaproblembysystematicanalysis;ManagerYdoesnot.

[C]ManagerXtakesactioninordertoarriveatthesolutiontoaproblem;ManagerYdoesnot.

[D]ManagerYdrawsonyearsofhands-onexperienceincreatingasolutiontoaproblem;ManagerXdoesnot.

4.Thetextprovidessupportforwhichofthefollowingstatements

[A]Managerswhorelyonintuitionaremoresuccessfulthanthosewhorelyonformaldecisionanalysis.

[B]Managerscannotjustifytheirintuitivedecisions.

[C]Managers''intuitionworkscontrarytotheirrationalandanalyticalskills.

[D]Intuitionenablesmanagerstoemploytheirpracticalexperiencemoreefficiently.

5.Whichofthefollowingbestdescribestheorganizationofthefirstparagraphofthetext

[A]Anassertionismadeandaspecificsupportingexampleisgiven.

[B]Aconventionalmodelisdismissedandanalternativeintroduced.

[C]Theresultsofrecentresearchareintroducedandsummarized.

[D]Twoopposingpointsofviewarepresentedandevaluated.

Californiaisalandofvarietyandcontrast.Almosteverytypeofphysicallandfeature,sortofarcticicefieldsandtropicaljunglescanbefoundwithinitsborders.Sharplycontrastingtypesoflandoftenlieveryclosetooneanother.PeoplelivinginBakersfield,forinstance,canvisitthePacificOceanandthecoastalplain,thefertileSanJoaquinValley,thearidMojaveDesert,andthehighSierraNevada,allwithinaradiusofabout100miles.Inotherareasitispossibletogosnowskiinginthemorningandsurfingintheeveningofthesameday,withouthavingtotravellongdistance.ContrastaboundsinCalifornia.ThehighestpointintheUnitedStates(outsideAlaska)isinCalifornia,andsoisthelowestpoint(includingAlaska)。MountWhitney,14,494feetabovesealevel,isseparatedfromDeathValley,282feetbelowsealevel,byadistanceofonly100miles.Thetwoareashaveadifferenceinaltitudeofalmostthreemiles.Californiahasdeep,clearmountainlakeslikeLakeTahoe,thedeepestinthecountry,butitalsohasshallow,saltydesertlakes.IthasLakeTulainyo,12,020feetabovesealevel,andthelowestlakeinthecountry,theSaltonSea,236feetbelowsealevel.Someofitslakes,likeOwensLakeinDeathValley,arenotlakesatall:theyaredrieduplakebeds.Inadditiontomountains,lakes,valleys,deserts,andplateaus,CaliforniahasitsPacificcoastline,stretchinglongerthanthecoastlinesofOregonandWashingtoncombined.

1.WhichofthefollowingisthelowestpointintheUnitedStates?

A.LakeTulainyoB.MojavedesertC.DeathValleyD.TheSaltonSea

2.WhereisthehighestpointintheUnitedStateslocated?

A.LakeTahoe.

B.SierraNevada.C.MountWhitney.

D.Alaska.

3.HowfarawayisDeathValleyfromMountWhitney?

A.About3miles.

D.14,494feet.

4.WhichofthefollowingisNOTmentionedinthepassageasbeingwithinaradiusofabout100milesofBakersfield?

A.ThePacificOcean.

B.SanJoaquinValley.

C.MojaveDesert.

D.OregonandWashington.

5.WhichstatementbestdemonstratesthatCaliforniaisalandofvarietyandcontrast?

A.ThehighestlakeinCaliforniaisLakeTulainyo.

B.ItispossibletogosurfingandsnowskiinginsomepartsofCaliforniawithouthavingtotravellongdistance.

C.SierraNevada,SanJoaquinValley,MojaveDesertandthePacificOceanallliewithinaradiusofabout100miles.

D.OwensLake,inDeathValley,isnotreallyalakeatall.

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