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大学英语六级阅读理全真模拟题汇总
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时间:2020-06-16
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Mostofusaretaughttopayattentiontowhatissaid—thewords.Wordsdoprovideuswithsomeinformation,butmeaningsarederivedfromsomanyothersourcesthatitwouldhinderoureffectivenessasapartnertoarelationshiptorelytooheavilyonwordsalone.Wordsareusedtodescribeonlyasmallpartofthemanyideasweassociatewithanygivenmessage.Sometimeswecangaininsightintosomeofthoseassociationsifwelistenformorethanwords.Wedon’talwayssaywhatwemeanormeanwhatwesay.Sometimesourwordsdon’tmeananythingexcept“I’mlettingoffsomesteam.Idon’treallywantyoutopaycloseattentiontowhatI’msaying.JustpayattentiontowhatI’mfeeling.”Mostlywemeanseveralthingsatonce.Apersonwantingtopurchaseahousesaystothecurrentowner,“ThisstephastobefixedbeforeI’llbuy.”Theownersays,“It’sbeenlikethatforyears.”Actually,thestephasn’tbeenlikethatforyears,buttheunspokenmessageis:“Idon’twanttofixit.Weputupwithit.Whycan’tyou?”Thesearchforamoreexpansiveviewofmeaningcanbedevelopedofexaminingamessageintermsofwhosaidit,whenitoccurred,therelatedconditionsorsituation,andhowitwassaid.

Whenamessageoccurscanalsorevealassociatedmeaning.Letusassumetwocouplesdoexactlythesameamountofkissingandarguing.Butonecouplealwayskissesafteranargumentandtheothercouplealwaysarguesafterakiss.Theorderingofthebehaviorsmaymeanagreatdealmorethanthefrequencyofthebehavior.Afriend’sunusuallydocilebehaviormayonlybeunderstoodbynotingthatitwasprecededbysituationsthatrequiredanabnormalamountofassertiveness.Someresponsesmaybedirectlylinkedtoadevelopingpatternofresponsesanddefylogic.Forexample,apersonwhosays“No!”toaserialsofchargeslike“You’redumb,”“You’relazy,”and“You’redishonest,”mayalsosay“No!”andtrytojustifyhisorherresponseifthenextstatementis“Andyou’regoodlooking.”

Wewoulddowelltolistenforhowmessagesarepresented.Thewords,“Ifsurehasbeennicetohaveyouover,”canbesaidwithemphasisandexcitementorritualistically.Thephrasecanbesaidonceorrepeatedseveraltimes.Andthemeaningsweassociatewiththephrasewillchangeaccordingly.Sometimesifwesaysomethinginfrequentlyitassumesmoreimportance;sometimesthemorewesaysomethingthelessimportanceitassumes.

1.Effectivecommunicationisrenderedpossiblebetweentwoconversingpartners,if___.

A.theyuseproperwordstocarrytheirideas.

B.theybothspeaktrulyoftheirownfeelings.

C.theytrytounderstandeachother’sideasbeyondwords.

D.theyarecapableofassociatingmeaningwiththeirwords.

2.“I’mlettingoffsomesteam”inparagraph1means___.

A.I’mjustcallingyourattention.

B.I’mjustkidding.

C.I’mjustsayingtheopposite.

D.I’mjustgivingoffsomesound.

3.Thehouse-owner’sexampleshowsthatheactuallymeans___.

A.thestephasbeenlikethatforyears.

B.hedoesn’tthinkitnecessarytofixthestep.

C.theconditionofthestepisonlyaminorfault.

D.thecostinvolvedinthefixingshouldbeshared.

4.Someresponsesandbehaviorsmayappearveryillogical,butarejustifiableif___.

A.linkedtoanabnormalamountofassertiveness.

B.seenasone’shabitualpatternofbehavior.

C.takenaspartofanorderingsequence.

D.expressedtoaseriesofcharges.

5.Theword“ritualistically”inthelastparagraphequalssomethingdone___.

A.withouttrueintention.

B.light-heartedly.

C.inawayofceremony.

D.withlessemphasis.

Recentresearchhasclaimedthatanexcessofpositiveionsintheaircanhaveanilleffectonpeople’sphysicalorpsychologicalhealth.Whatarepositiveions?Well,theairisfullofions,electricallychargedparticles,andgenerallythereisaroughbalancebetweenthepositiveandthenegativecharged.Butsometimesthisbalancebecomesdisturbedandalargerproportionofpositiveionsarefound.Thishappensnaturallybeforethunderstorm,earthquakeswhenwindssuchastheMistral,HamsinorSharavareblowingincertaincountries.Oritcanbecausedbyabuild-upofstaticelectricityindoorsfromcarpetsorclothingmadeofman-madefibres,orfromTVsets,duplicatorsorcomputerdisplayscreens.

Whenalargenumberofpositiveionsarepresentintheairmanypeopleexperienceunpleasanteffectssuchasheadaches,fatigue,irritability,andsomesensitivepeoplesuffernauseaorevenmentaldisturbance.Animalsarealsoaffected,particularlybeforeearthquakes,snakeshavebeenobservedtocomeoutofhibernation,ratstofleefromtheirburrows,dogshowlandcatsjumpaboutunaccountably.ThishasledtheUSGeographicalSurveytofundanetworkofvolunteerstowatchanimalsinanefforttoforeseesuchdisastersbeforetheyhitvulnerableareassuchasCalifornia.

Conversely,whenlargenumbersofnegativeionsarepresent,thenpeoplehaveafeelingofwell-being.Naturalconditionsthatproducetheselargeamountsarenearthesea,closetowaterfallsorfountains,orinanyplacewherewaterissprayed,orformsaspray.Thisprobablyaccountsforthebeneficialeffectofaholidaybythesea,orinthemountainswithtumblingstreamsorwaterfalls.

Toincreasethesupplyofnegativeionsindoors,somescientistsrecommendtheuseofionisers:smallportablemachines,whichgeneratenegativeions.Theyclaimthationisersnotonlycleanandrefreshtheairbutalsoimprovethehealthofpeoplesensitivetoexcesspositiveions.Ofcourse,therearethedetractors,otherscientists,whodismisssuchclaimsandareskepticalaboutnegative/positiveionresearch.Thereforepeoplecanonlymakeuptheirownmindsbyobservingtheeffectsonthemselves,oronothers,ofanegativerichorpoorenvironment.Afterallitisdebatablewhetherdependingonseismicreadingstoanticipateearthquakesismoreeffectivethanwatchingthecat.

1.Whateffectdoesexceedingpositiveionizationhaveonsomepeople?

A.Theythinktheyareinsane.

B.Theyfeelratherbad-temperedandshort-fussed.

C.Theybecomeviolentlysick.

D.Theyaretootiredtodoanything.

2.Inaccordancewiththepassage,staticelectricitycanbecausedby___.

A.usinghome-madeelectricalgoods.

B.wearingclothesmadeofnaturalmaterials.

C.walkingonartificialfloorcoverings.

D.copyingTVprogramsonacomputer.

3.Ahighnegativeioncountislikelytobefound___.

A.nearapoundwithawaterpump.

B.closetoaslow-flowingriver.

C.highinsomebarrenmountains.

D.byarotatingwatersprinkler.

4.Whatkindofmachinecangeneratenegativeionsindoors?

A.Ionisers.

B.Air-conditioners.

C.Exhaust-fans

D.Vacuumpumps.

5.Somescientistsbelievethat___.

A.watchinganimalstoanticipateearthquakesismoreeffectivethandependingonseismography.

B.theunusualbehaviorofanimalscannotbetrusted.

C.neitherwatchingnorusingseismographsisreliable.

D.earthquake

Onceitwaspossibletodefinemaleandfemaleroleseasilybythedivisionoflabor.Menworkedoutsidethehomeandearnedtheincometosupporttheirfamilies,whilewomencookedthemealsandtookcareofthehomeandthechildren.Theseroleswerefirmlyfixedformostpeople,andtherewasnotmuchopportunityforwomentoexchangetheirroles.Butbythemiddleofthiscentury,men’sandwomen’sroleswerebecominglessfirmlyfixed.

Inthe1950s,economicandsocialsuccesswasthegoalofthetypicalAmerican.Butinthe1960sanewforcedevelopedcalledthecounterculture.Thepeopleinvolvedinthismovementdidnotvaluethemiddle-classAmericangoals.Thecounterculturepresentedmenandwomenwithnewrolechoices.Takingmoreinterestinchildcare,menbegantosharechild-raisingtaskswiththeirwives.Infact,someyoungmenandwomenmovedtocommunalhomesorfarmswheretheeconomicandchildcareresponsibilitiesweresharedequallybybothsexes.Inaddition,manyAmericansdidnotvaluethetraditionalmaleroleofsoldier.SomeyoungmenrefusedtobedraftedassoldierstofightinthewarinVietnam.

Intermsofnumbers,thecounterculturewasnotaverylargegroupofpeople.ButitsinfluencespreadtomanypartsofAmericansociety.Workingmenofallclassesbegantochangetheireconomicandsocialpatterns.Industrialworkersandbusinessexecutivesalikecutdownon“overtime”worksothattheycouldspendmoreleisuretimewiththeirfamilies.Somedoctors,lawyers,andteachersturnedawayfromhighpayingsituationstopracticetheirprofessionsinpoorerneighborhoods.

Inthe1970s,thefeministmovement,orwomen’sliberation,producedadditionaleconomicandsocialchanges.Womenofallagesandatalllevelsofsocietywereenteringtheworkforceingreaternumbers.Mostofthemstilltooktraditionalwomen’sjobsaspublicschoolteaching,nursing,andsecretarialwork.Butsomewomenbegantoentertraditionallymaleoccupations:policework,banking,dentistry,andconstructionwork.Womenwereaskingforequalwork,andequalopportunitiesforpromotion.

Todaytheexpertsgenerallyagreethatimportantchangesaretakingplaceintherolesofmenandwomen.Naturally,therearedifficultiesinadjustingtothesetransformations.

1.WhichofthefollowingbestexpressthemainideaofParagraph1?

A.Womenusuallyworkedoutsidethehomeforwages.

B.Menandwomen’sroleswereeasilyexchangedinthepast.

C.Men’srolesathomeweremorefirmlyfixedthanwomen’s.

D.Menandwomen’sroleswereusuallyquiteseparatedinthepast.

2.WhichsentencebestexpressesthemainideaofParagraph2?

A.Thefirstsentence.

B.Thesecondandthethirdsentences.

C.Thefourthsentence.

D.Thelastsentence.

3.Inthepassagetheauthorproposesthatthecounterculture___.

A.destroyedtheUnitedStates.

B.transformedsomeAmericanvalues.

C.wasnotimportantintheUnitedStates.

D.broughtpeoplemoreleisuretimewiththeirfamilies.

4.Itcouldbeinferredfromthepassagethat___.

A.menandwomenwillneversharethesamegoals.

B.somemenwillbewillingtoexchangetheirtraditionalmaleroles.

C.mostmenwillbehappytosharesomeofthehouseholdresponsibilitieswiththeirwives.

D.moreAmericanhouseholdsareheadedbywomenthaneverbefore.

5.Thebesttitleforthepassagemaybe___.

A.ResultsofFeministMovements

B.NewinfluenceinAmericanLife

C.CountercultureandItsconsequence

D.TraditionalDivisionofMaleandFemaleRoles.

IliveinthelandofDisney,Hollywoodandyear-roundsun.Youmaythinkpeopleinsuchaglamorous,fun-filledplacearehappierthanothers.Ifso,youhavesomemistakenideasaboutthenatureofhappiness.

Manyintelligentpeoplestillequatehappinesswithfun.Thetruthisthatfunandhappinesshavelittleornothingincommon.Funiswhatweexperienceduringanact.Happinessiswhatweexperienceafteranact.Itisadeeper,moreabidingemotion.

Goingtoanamusementparkorballgame,watchingamovieortelevision,arefunactivitiesthathelpusrelax,temporarilyforgetourproblemsandmaybeevenlaugh.Buttheydonotbringhappiness,becausetheirpositiveeffectsendwhenthefunends.

IhaveoftenthoughtthatifHollywoodstarshavearoletoplay,itistoteachusthathappinesshasnothingtodowithfun.Theserich,beautifulindividualshaveconstantaccesstoglamorousparties,fancycars,expensivehomes,everythingthatspells“happiness”.Butinmemoiraftermemoir,celebritiesrevealtheunhappinesshiddenbeneathalltheirfun:depression,alcoholism,drugaddiction,brokenmarriages,troubledchildrenandprofoundloneliness.

Askabachelorwhyheresistsmarriageeventhoughhefindsdatingtobelessandlesssatisfying.Ifhe’shonest,hewilltellyouthatheisafraidofmakingacommitment.Forcommitmentisinfactquitepainful.Thesinglelifeisfilledwithfun,adventureandexcitement.Marriagehassuchmoments,buttheyarenotitsmostdistinguishingfeatures.

Similarly,couplesthatchoosenottohavechildrenaredecidinginfavorofpainlessfunoverpainfulhappiness.Theycandineoutevertheywantandsleepaslateastheywant.Coupleswithinfantchildrenareluckytogetawholenight’ssleeporathree-dayvacation.Idon’tknowanyparentwhowouldchoosethewordfuntodescriberaisingchildren.

Understandingandacceptingthattruehappinesshasnothingtodowithfunisoneofthemostliberatingrealizationswecanevercometo.Itliberatestime:nowwecandevotemorehourstoactivitiesthatcangenuinelyincreaseourhappiness.Itliberatesmoney:buyingthatnewcarorthosefancyclothesthatwilldonothingtoincreaseourhappinessnowseemspointless.Anditliberatesusfromenvy:wenowunderstandthatallthoserichandglamorouspeopleweweresosurearehappybecausetheyarealwayshavingsomuchfunactuallymaynotbehappyatall.

1.Whichofthefollowingistrue?

A.Funcreateslong-lastingsatisfaction.

B.Funprovidesenjoymentwhilepainleadstohappiness.

C.Happinessisenduringwhereasfunisshort-lived.

D.Funthatislong-standingmayleadtohappiness.

2.Totheauthor,Hollywoodstarsallhaveanimportantroletoplaythatisto__.

A.ritememoiraftermemoirabouttheirhappiness.

B.tellthepublicthathappinesshasnothingtodowithfun.

C.teachpeoplehowtoenjoytheirlives.

D.bringhappinesstothepublicinsteadofgoingtoglamorousparties.

3.Intheauthor’sopinion,marriage___.

A.affordsgreaterfun.

B.leadstoraisingchildren.

C.indicatescommitment.

D.endsinpain.

4.Coupleshavinginfantchildren___.

A.areluckysincetheycanhaveawholenight’ssleep.

B.findfunintuckingthemintobedatnight.

C.findmoretimetoplayandjokewiththem.

D.derivehappinessfromtheirendeavor.

5.Ifonegetthemeaningofthetruesenseofhappiness,hewill__.

A.stopplayinggamesandjokingwithothers.

B.makethebestuseofhistimeincreasinghappiness.

C.giveafreehandtomoney.

D.keephimselfwithhisfamily.

Wecanbeginourdiscussionof“populationasglobalissue”withwhatmostpersonsmeanwhentheydiscuss“thepopulationproblem”:toomanypeopleonearthandatoorapidincreaseinthenumberaddedeachyear.Thefactsarenotindispute,Itwasquiterighttoemploytheanalogythatlikeneddemographicgrowthto“along,thinpowderfusethatburnssteadilyandhaltinglyuntilitfinallyreachesthechargeandexplodes.”

Tounderstandthecurrentsituation,whichischaracterizedbyrapidincreasesinpopulation,itisnecessarytounderstandthehistoryofpopulationtrends.Rapidgrowthisacomparativelyrecentphenomenon.Lookingbackatthe8,000yearsofdemographichistory,wefindthatpopulationshavebeenvirtuallystableorgrowingveryslightlyformostofhumanhistory.Formostofourancestors,lifewashard,oftennasty,andveryshort.Therewashighfertilityinmostplaces,butthiswasusuallybalancedbyhighmortality.Formostofhumanhistory,itwasseldomthecasethatoneintenpersonswouldlivepastforty,whileinfancyandchildhoodwereespeciallyriskyperiods.Often,societieswereincleardangerofextinctionbecausedeathratescouldexceedtheirbirthrates.Thus,thepopulationproblemthroughoutmostofhistorywashowtopreventextinctionofthehumanrace.

Thispatternisimportanttonotice.Notonlydoesitputthecurrentproblemsofdemographicgrowthintoahistoricalperspective,butitsuggeststhatthecauseofrapidincreaseinpopulationinrecentyearsisnotasuddenenthusiasmformorechildren,butanimprovementintheconditionsthattraditionallyhavecausedhighmortality.

Demographichistorycanbedividedintotwomajorperiods:atimeoflong,slowgrowthwhichextendedfromabout8,000BC.tillapproximatelyAD.1650.Inthefirstperiodofsome9600years,thepopulationincreasedfromsome8millionto500millionin1650.Between1650andthepresent,thepopulationhasincreasedfrom500milliontomorethan4billion.Anditisestimatedthatbytheyear2000therewillbe6.2billionpeoplethroughouttheworld.Onewaytoappreciatethisdramaticdifferenceinsuchabstractnumbersistoreducethetimeframetosomethingthatismoremanageable.Between8000BCand1650,anaverageofonly50,000personswasbeingaddedannuallytotheworld’spopulationeachyear.Atpresent,thisnumberisaddedeverysixhours.Theincreaseisabout80,000,000personsannually.

1.Whichofthefollowingdemographicgrowthpatternismostsuitableforthelongthinpowderfuseanalogy?

A.Avirtuallystableorslightlydecreasingperiodandthenasuddenexplosionofpopulation.

B.Aslowgrowthforalongtimeandthenaperiodofrapid,dramaticincrease.

C.Toomanypeopleonearthandafewrapidincreaseinthenumberaddedeachyear.

D.Alongperiodwhendeathratesexceedsbirthratesandthenashortperiodwithhigherfertilityandlowermortality.

2.Duringthefirstperiodofdemographichistory,societieswereoftenindangerofextinctionbecause___.

A.onlyoneintenpersonscouldlivepast40.

B.therewashighermortalitythanfertilityinmostplaces.

C.itwastoodangeroustohavebabiesduetothepoorconditions.

D.ourancestorshadlittleenthusiasmformorechildren.

3.Whichstatementistrueaboutpopulationincrease?

A.Theremightbeanincreaseof2.2billionpersonsfromnowtotheyear2000.

B.About50,000babiesareborneverysixhoursatpresent.

C.Between8000BCandthepresent,thepopulationincreaseisabout80,000,000personseachyear.

D.Thepopulationincreasedfasterbetween8000BCand1650thanbetween1650andthepresent.

4.Theauthorofthepassageintendsto___.

A.warnpeopleagainstthepopulationexplosioninthenearfuture.

B.comparethedemographicgrowthpatterninthepastwiththatafter1650.

C.findoutthecauseforrapidincreaseinpopulationinrecentyears.

D.presentusaclearandcompletepictureofthedemographicgrowth.

5.Theword“demographic”inthefirstparagraphmeans___.

A.statisticsofhuman.

B.surroundingsstudy.

C.accumulationofhuman.

D.developmentofhuman.

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