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Ihavea[sore]throatfromcold.

A、strong
B、weak
C、clear
D、painful
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正确答案:

D

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SectionD

Evenifyougetworkdoneandgenerallygetalongwithco-workers,youcouldhavehabitsthatbugyourboss(nottomentionyourofficemates).Whilethesequirksmaynotnecessarilygetyoufired,theycertainlycankeepyoufromclimbingthecorporateladder.We’veuncoveredanumberofhabitsthatbugyourbossandoffertipsonhowtoavoidthem.

AccordingtoLaRhondaEdwards,ahumanresourcesmanagerwiththirteenyearsofHRexperience,tardinessisoneofthebiggestconcernsformanagers.“Ifthenormalworkdaystartsat8o’clock,thentheexpectationisthatyou’reintheofficereadytostartyourday,”sheexplains.Heradvicetothechronicallylate?“Planahead,”sheurges.“Ifyoulive50minutesaway,youdon’tleave50minutesearly.Tagonextratimeandanticipateroadblocks.”Somepeopleevensettheirclocksafewminutesearlytoensurethatthey’reontime.Differentbossespreferdifferentmodesofcommunication.LindseyPollak,aworkplaceexpertandauthorofGettingfromCollegetoCareer,saysifyoutextyourbossandsheprefersin-personmeetings,“eitheryourinformationwon’tgetacrossoryou’llirritate[her].”Fortunately,there’sasimplefix:askyourbosshowandwhentosendupdates.Ifyou’retooshytoaskoutright,thenPollaksuggestsobservinghowtheycommunicatewithyou.“Ifyouhaveabosswhocommunicatesonceadaybyemail,that’stheboss’preferredfrequencyandmethodofcommunication,”explainsPollak.

Acluttered,messyworkspacecangiveyourbosstheimpressionthatyou’relazyordisorganized,sotrytokeepyourdeskneat.“Neverputmoreonyourdeskthanyou’regoingtoworkonfortheday,”recommendsEdwards.“Attheendoftheday,makesureyousetupforthenextday.Imaybeworkingonfivethingsatonce,butattheendoftheday,they’regone,andIsetupforthenextday.”Mostmanagerswouldratheryouaskaquestionthanmakeamistake,butmanyquestionscanbeansweredonyourown.“IsthissomethingyoucouldGoogleoraskacolleague?”wondersPollak.“Theinternetissovastthatalotofinformationyoucangetyourself.”Ifyoumustapproachyourbosswithaquestionorissue,thenPollakrecommendsbrainstormingbeforehand.“Ratherthansaying‘Thisclientisterrible.WhatshouldIdo?’thinkaboutpotentialsolutions,”shesays.

Cellphonesarepracticallyubiquitousintheworkplacethesedays,butit’sstilldisruptiveanddisrespectfulwhentheygooffduringameeting.Edwardssaysthatyoushould,“putyourcellphoneonvibrateorleaveitinyourownofficesoit’snotadistraction.”Thatwayyouwon’tbetemptedtotexteither

()6.Accordingtothearticle,howmanypiecesofadviceareofferedhere?.

A.TwoB.ThreeC.FourD.Five(B)

()7.Whatisthisarticleabout?.

A.Howtobesuccessfulintheworkplace.

B.Howtocommunicatewithyourboss.

C.Howtoavoidquirksthatannoyyourboss.

D.Howtoutilizeyourmobilephonesatwork.

()8.Whatdoesthephrase“togetacross”inthesentence“…sheprefersin-personmeetings,“eitheryourinformationwon’tgetacrossoryou’llirritate…”ofthesecondparagraphmean?.

A.TobecommunicatedB.Tobepassed

C.TobepromotedD.Tobeanticipated(A)

()9.Accordingtothearticle,whichofthefollowingmodesofcommunicationisthebestwhencommunicatingwithyourboss?.

A.Anywaysyouthinkareappropriate.

B.In-personmeetings.

C.Correspondence.

D.Thewayyourbosscommunicateswithyou.(D)

()10.Whichofthefollowingstatementsisnotmentioned?

A.Employeesshouldpayrespecttotheirbossesanytime.

B.Employeesshouldplanbeforehandsoastoshowupatworkontime.

C.Employeesshouldnotlettheirmobilephonesgooffduringmeetings.

D.Employeesshouldkeeptheirdesksneatandorganized.

TheImportanceofGoodCommunications

Effectivecommunicationisessentialforallorganizations.Itlinkstheactivitiesofthevariouspartsoftheorganizationandensuresthateveryoneisworkingtowardsacommongoal.Itisalsoextremelyimportantformotivatingemployees.Staffneedtoknowhowtheyaregettingon,whattheyaredoingrightandinwhichareastheycouldimprove.Workingalonecanbeextremelydifficultanditismucheasierifsomeonetakesaninterestandprovidessupport.Employeesneedtounderstandwhytheirjobisimportantandhowitcontributestotheoverallsuccessofthefirm.Personalcommunicationshouldalsoincludetargetsetting.Peopleusuallyrespondwelltogoals,providedtheseareagreedbetweenthemanagerandsubordinateandnotimposed.

However,firmsoftenhavecommunicationproblemsthatcanunderminetheirperformance.Inmanycases,theseproblemsoccurbecausemessagesarepassedoninaninappropriateway.Thereare,ofcourse,severalwaysofconveyinginformationtoothersintheorganizationwhichincludespeakingtothemdirectly,e-mailing,telephoningorsendingamemo.Themostappropriatemethoddependsonwhatexactlyitisyouarecommunicating.Forexample,anythingthatisparticularlysensitiveorconfidential,suchasanemployee'sappraisal,shouldbedoneface-to-face.

Oneofthemainproblemsforseniorexecutivesisthattheydonothavethetimeorresourcesneededtocommunicateeffectively.Inlargecompanies,forexample,itisimpossibleforseniormanagerstomeetanddiscussprogresswitheachemployeeindividually.Obviouslythistaskcanbedelegatedbutatthecostofcreatingagapbetweenseniormanagementandstaff.Asaresult,managersareoftenforcedtouseothermethodsofcommunication,likememosornotes,eveniftheyknowthesearenotnecessarilythemostsuitablemeansofpassingonmessages.

Theuseoftechnology,suchase-mail,mobilephonesandnetworksystems,isspeedingupcommunicationimmensely.However,thisdoesnotmeanthatmoreinvestmentintechnologyautomaticallyprovesbeneficial:systemscanbecomeoutdatedoremployeesmaylackappropriatetraining.Therearemanycommunicationstoolsnowavailablebutafirmcannotaffordallofthem.Evenifitcould,itdoesnotactuallyneedthemall.Thepotentialgainsmustbeweighedupagainstthecosts,andfirmsshouldrealizethatmorecommunicationdoesnotnecessarilymeanbettercommunication."

Asthenumberofpeopleinvolvedinanorganizationincrease,theuseofwrittencommunicationrisesevenfaster.Insteadofaquickconversationtosortsomethingoutnumerousmessagescanbepassedbackwardsandforwards.Thiscanleadtoatremendousamountofpaperworkandisoftenlesseffectivethanface-to-facecommunication.Whenyouareactuallytalkingtosomeoneyoucandiscussthingsuntilyouarehappythattheyhaveunderstoodandfeedbackisimmediate.Withwrittenmessages,however,youareneverquitesurehowitwillbereceivedwhatyouthinkyouhavesaidandwhattheotherpersonthinksyouhavesaidcanbeverydifferent.

Theamountofwritteninformationgeneratedinlargeorganizationstodaycanleadtocommunicationoverload.Somuchinformationisgatheredthatitgetsinthewayofmakingdecisions.Takealookattheaveragemanager'sdeskandyouwillseetheproblem--itisoftencoveredwithletters,reportsandmemos.Thisoverloadcanleadtoinefficiencies.Forexample,managersmaynotbeabletofindtheinformationtheywantwhentheyneedit.Communicationisalsobecomingmoredifficultwiththechangesoccurringinemploymentpatterns.Withmorepeopleworkingpart-timeandworkingathome,managingcommunicationisbecomingincreasinglycomplex.

1.InthefirstparagraphthewriterrecommendsthatcommunicationwithstaffshouldincludeA.somefeedbackontheirjobperformance.

B.anexplanationofhowcompanytargetshavebeenset.

C.informationonpromotionprospectswithinthecompany.

D.anindicationofwhichdutiestheycanexpectassistancewith.areastheycouldimprove

2.Accordingtothewriter,thebestwayofachievingeffectivecommunicationistoA.adaptthemessagetosuitaparticularaudience.

B.makethecontentofmessagesbriefanddirect.

C.selectthemostsuitablemeansofconveyingaparticularmessage.

D.ensurethatinformationistargetedattheappropriategroupofpeople.

3.Whatdoesthewritersayaboutthecommunicationoptionsavailabletoseniormanagers?A.Sendingmemostostaffisoneofthemostefficientmethods.

B.Itisimportanttofindthetimetodiscusscertainmatterswithstaff.

C.Theyshouldincreasetherangeofoptionsthattheyuse.

D.Gettingjuniormanagerstotalktostaffcancreatedifferentproblems.

4.Whatadviceisgivenaboutthecommunicationtoolsmadeavailablebytechnology?A.Aimtolimitstaffuseofcertaincommunicationtools.

B.Evaluatethemintermsoftheexpenditureinvolved.

C.Selectthemonthebasisofthefacilitiestheyoffer.

D.Encouragemorestafftoattendtrainingcoursesintheiruse.

5.Accordingtothewriter,aproblemwithwrittencommunicationisthatA.themessagecanbeinterpreteddifferentlytowhatwasintended.

B.itcanbeeasyforpeopletoignorethecontentsofawrittenmessage.

C.mostpeoplearemorecomfortablewithface-to-facecommunication.

D.itispossibleforcorrespondencetogetlostwithinalargeorganization.

6.Accordingtothearticle,whatistheeffectofreceivinglargeamountsofwritteninformation?A.Itiscounter-productive."

B.Itcausesconflictinacompany.

C.Itleadstochangesinworkpatterns.

D.Itmakesthemainpointsmoredifficulttoidentify.

TroublewithTeamwork

MaryOwenexaminestheroleandefficiencyofteams

Recruiterssaythatcandidateswhocangiveexamplesofworktheyhavedoneasmembersofasuccessfulteamareinasstrongapositionasthosewhocanpointtosignificantindividualachievement.Indeed,toomuchofthelattermaysuggestthatthepersonconcernedisnota'teamplayer'-oneofthemoreseriousfailingsinthebookofmanagement.

Theimportanceofbeingateamplayerisasideeffectoftheincreasinginteractionacrossdepartmentsandfunctionaldivides.Insteadofpushingreports,paperworkanddecisionsaroundtheorganisation,'teamsprovideadynamicmeetingplacewhereideascanbesharedandexpertisemorecarefullytargetedatimportantbusinessissues,'saysSteveGardner,inhisbookKeyManagementConcepts.Headds,'Globalisationhasaddedafurtherdimensiontoteamwork.Multinationalteamsnowstudypolicydecisionsinthelightoftheirimpactonthelocalmarket.'

Butisteamworkingbeingoverdone?'Somemanagersareonasmanyassevenoreightdifferentteams',saysDrCathyBandy,apsychologistwhorecentlyranaconferenceonthesubject.'Theytakeupsomuchtimethatmanagerscan'tgetonwithcoretasks.'Formingteamsandhavingmeetingshas,shesays,becomeanendinitself,almostregardlessofpurpose.Thereisalsothedangerofanunhealthydesiretokeeptheteamgoingaftertheworkhasbeendone.'Peoplefeeltheneedtobelong,andteammembershipcanprovideakindofpsychologicalsupport.'

Theideabehindteamworkingisthat,whentherightgroupofpeopleisbroughttogether,a'force'developswhichisgreaterthanthesumoftheirindividualtalents.Thisisoftentrueinsport,wheregoodplayerscanreachunexpectedheightsasmembersofaninternationalteam.However,fewbusinesssituationshaveasclearasetofobjectives,orasclearcriteriaofsuccessorfailure,aswinningamatch.

'Inbusiness,everyoneneedstobeclearaboutwhatthechallengeisandwhetherateamistherightwayofapproachingit',saysSteveGardner.'Unfortunately,peoplefocusinsteadonwhothemembersoftheteamshouldbeandwhatrolestheyaretoplay'DrBandyagrees.'Thereisalwaysadangerthatteamscanturnintocommittees,'shesays.'Inalotofsituations,oneortwoindividualswouldbemuchmoreeffective.'

Sowhatmakesasuccessfulteam?Therearesomegeneralqualitiesthathavebeenidentified.SteveGardnerrecommendsthatineveryteamthereshouldbesomeonewhoisgoodatresearchingideasandanotherwhoisgoodatshootingdownimpracticalones.Thereshouldbethosewhocanresolvethetensionsthatnaturallyoccurinateamandotherswhoarefocusedongettingthejobdone.Also,providingaclearandachievabletargetattheoutsetisthebestwayofensuringthattheteamwillmoveontogreaterthings.

13、Whatpointdoesthewritermakeaboutteamworkingatthebeginningofthearticle?

AItisthemostsuccessfulformofmanagement.

BIthaschangedtherecruitmentprocedureincompanies.

CWell-runteamsstillallowindividualstodemonstratetheirtalents.

DBeingateamplayerisnowconsideredanessentialmanagementskill.

14、Accordingtothearticle,teamworkdevelopedwithincompaniesasaresponseto

Amodernofficedesign.

Bchangingworkpractices.

Careductioninadministrativetasks.

Dtheexpansionofinternationalbusiness.

15、Inthethirdparagraph,DrBandysuggeststhat

Amanyemployeesdonotenjoyworkinginteams.

Bsomemanagersarenotveryeffectiveteamleaders.

Csometeamsarecreatedunnecessarily.

Dfewteamsarewellorganised.

16、Accordingtothewriter,teamworkismoreeffectiveinthefieldofsportbecausetheplayers

Aknowwhattheywanttoachieve.

Baremorecompetitivebynature.

Chavemoreindividualtalent.

Dcanbedrivenbynationalpride.

17、SteveGardnerandDrBandyagreethatwhenabusinessteamiscreatedpeopledonotpayenoughattentionto

Athestructureoftheteam.

Balternativestotheteam.

Cselectingtheteammembers.

Ddirectingtheteam'sactivities.

18、WhatisSteveGardner'sadviceonoperatingasuccessfulteam?

AMaintainaflexibleapproachtomembership.

BAllowpersonalitiestodevelopwithintheteam.

CSelectpeoplewhofitnaturallyintocertainroles.

DMakeeveryefforttoavoidconflictbetweenmembers.

Asthenumberofparticipantshasincreasedfrom60to98,wewonderifwecanuseLectureHall'A'as'B'willbetoosmall.

ReadingComprehension

SectionA

Directions:Therearetenincompletesentencesinthissection.ForeachsentencetherearefourchoicesmarkedA,B,CandD.ChoosetheONEthatbestcompletesthesentence.Thenwritedowntherightanswerinthebracketsforeachsentence.Thissectiontotals10points,onepointforeachsentence.

()1.Wecansupplyallthebicyclesyourequired____________stockandarearrangingshipmentbyM.V.Mermaid.

A.forB.from C.to D.against

()2.Wewouldliketoremindyouthatthe__________L/CmustreachusbeforeMarch10

sothatwecanmakeshipmentingoodtime.

A.coveringB.cover C.coveredD.beingcovered

()3.Wehavereceivedyourletterof28March,___________ustomodifythepreviousarrangementsfortheshipmentofthecaptionedorder.

A.askedB.toask C.beingaskedD.asking

()4.InourletterofMay5,wemade__________clearthatshipmentistobeeffectedinJune.

A.youB.them C.thatD.it

()5.Wealwaysdeal_______________paymentbysightL/C.

A.with B.in C.at D.on

()6.Thisofferis_____________toyourreplyreachingusbeforethe20thofFebruary.

A.subjectingB.subject C.subjectedDtosubject

()7.____________weareappreciatingthegoodqualityofyourblacktea,weregretthatyourpriceappearstobeonthehighside.

A.WhileB.When C.HoweverD.Therefore

()8.Weherebyauthorizeyouto___________onusat60daysaftersighttotheextentofUSD20,000.00.

A.open B.establish C.draw D.build

()9.Ifpartiestoacontractdesiretosettledisputes,anarbitrationclauseisusuallymadeinthecontractwellbeforeadispute_____________.

A.risesB.arisesC.lookD.appear

()10.Somecustomersrequestedusto_____________ourpricebecausetheyconsideredit

toohigh.

A.putdownB.getdownC.takedown D.bringdown

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