《Trouble with Teamwork》，团队合作的麻烦。文章讲了团队的重要性和很多团队存在的问题，以及怎么样才能打造一个成功有效的团队。
第十三题，问文章开头作者针对团队合作做了什么论点。第一段是强调团队合作的重要性，太多的个人成果会显得这个人不是个合格的团队成员。选答案要理解第一句话的含义：Recruiters say that candidates who can give examples of work they have done as members of a successful team are in as strong a position as those who can point to significant individual achievement.招聘者说能够给出自己作为一个成功团队成员的例子的候选人同那些指出重要的个人成果的人具有同样重要的地位。言下之意，拥有团队成员的经历也很重要。所以选D，作为一个团队成员如今被视为必要的管理技巧。A、B、C都没有提到。
第十四题，问公司内部的团队合作是作为对什么的回应。也就是问团队合作的目的是什么，答案是第二段的这么一句：'teams provide a dynamic meeting place where ideas can be shared and expertise more carefully targeted at important business issues 团队提供了一个动态的会议场所，使得思想可以分享，技能可以更加仔细的对准重要的商业问题。这句里的dynamic meeting place可以对应于B段的changing work practice。
第十五题，问在第三段Dr Bandy暗示什么。答案是她的一句原话：Forming teams and having meetings has, she says, become an end in itself, almost regardless of purpose.形成团队然后开会成了它本身的终点，几乎不管目的是什么。也就是说很多团队的建立是没有意义的，多余的。选C，一些团队被不必要的创建了。
第十六题，问作者认为团队合作在体育领域里更有效的原因是什么。第四段讲当一群正确的人被组合到一起时会产生一种高于这些人个人能力的力量，在体育比赛里就是如此。这一题的答案是第四段的最后一句：few business situations have as clear a set of objectives, or as clear criteria of success or failure, as winning a match.。很少有企业能像赢得一场比赛一样有一系列清晰的目标，或者是对成功或失败有清晰的评判准则。也就是A选项所说的：知道他们想要实现什么。what they want to achieve可以对应于a set of objectives。
第十七题，问这两个人同意当一个商业团队被创立时人们没有把注意力放在什么上面。这一题要理解第五段的意思。第一句说In business, everyone needs to be clear about what the challenge is and whether a team is the right way of approaching it。在企业，每个人都必须很清楚挑战是什么以及团队是否是实现它的最好的办法。考虑团队是不是最好的办法，也就是说要考虑其他可能的途径，即B选项所说的团队的替代品(alternatives to the team)，后面有句focus instead….人们却把注意力放在了其他的地方。从这些可以看出答案是B。
第二段有个地方值得解释下。Globalisation has added a further dimension to teamwork。
牛津词典的解释：an aspect or feature of a situation, problem, or thing。
麦克米兰的解释：a part of a situation, especially when it influences the way you think about the situation。
e.g: Doing volunteer work has added a whole new dimension to my life.
The Importance of Good Communications
Effective communication is essential for all organizations. It links the activities of the various parts of the organization and ensures that everyone is working towards a common goal. It is also extremely important for motivating employees. Staff need to know how they are getting on, what they are doing right and in which areas they could improve. Working alone can be extremely difficult and it is much easier if someone takes an interest and provides support. Employees need to understand why their job is important and how it contributes to the overall success of the firm. Personal communication should also include target setting. People usually respond well to goals, provided these are agreed between the manager and subordinate and not imposed.
However, firms often have communication problems that can undermine their performance. In many cases,these problems occur because messages are passed on in an inappropriate way. There are, of course, several ways of conveying information to others in the organization which include speaking to them directly, e-mailing, telephoning or sending a memo. The most appropriate method depends on what exactly it is you are communicating. For example, anything that is particularly sensitive or confidential, such as an employee's appraisal, should be done face-to-face.
One of the main problems for senior executives is that they do not have the time or resources needed to communicate effectively. In large companies, for example, it is impossible for senior managers to meet and discuss progress with each employee individually. Obviously this task can be delegated but at the cost of creating a gap between senior management and staff. As a result, managers are often forced to use other methods of communication, like memos or notes, even if they know these are not necessarily the most suitable means of passing on messages.
The use of technology, such as e-mail, mobile phones and network systems, is speeding up communication immensely. However, this does not mean that more investment in technology automatically proves beneficial: systems can become outdated or employees may lack appropriate training. There are many communications tools now available but a firm cannot afford all of them. Even if it could, it does not actually need them all.The potential gains must be weighed up against the costs, and firms should realize that more communicationdoes not necessarily mean better communication."
As the number of people involved in an organization increase, the use of written communication rises even faster. Instead of a quick conversation to sort something out numerous messages can be passed backwards and forwards. This can lead to a tremendous amount of paperwork and is often less effective than face-to-face communication. When you are actually talking to someone you can discuss things until you are happy that they have understood and feedback is immediate. With written messages, however, you are never quite sure how it will be received what you think you have said and what the other person thinks you have said can be very different.
The amount of written information generated in large organizations today can lead to communication overload. So much information is gathered that it gets in the way of making decisions. Take a look at the average manager's desk and you will see the problem -- it is often covered with letters, reports and memos. This overload can lead to inefficiencies. For example, managers may not be able to find the information they want when they need it. Communication is also becoming more difficult with the changes occurring in employment patterns. With more people working part-time and working at home, managing communication is becoming increasingly complex.
1.In the first paragraph the writer recommends that communication with staff should includeA. some feedback on their job performance.
B. an explanation of how company targets have been set.
C. information on promotion prospects within the company.
D. an indication of which duties they can expect assistance with.areas they could improve
2.According to the writer, the best way of achieving effective communication is toA. adapt the message to suit a particular audience.
B. make the content of messages brief and direct.
C. select the most suitable means of conveying a particular message.
D. ensure that information is targeted at the appropriate group of people.
3.What does the writer say about the communication options available to senior managers?A. Sending memos to staff is one of the most efficient methods.
B. It is important to find the time to discuss certain matters with staff.
C. They should increase the range of options that they use.
D. Getting junior managers to talk to staff can create different problems.
4.What advice is given about the communication tools made available by technology?A. Aim to limit staff use of certain communication tools.
B. Evaluate them in terms of the expenditure involved.
C. Select them on the basis of the facilities they offer.
D. Encourage more staff to attend training courses in their use.
5.According to the writer, a problem with written communication is thatA. the message can be interpreted differently to what was intended.
B. it can be easy for people to ignore the contents of a written message.
C. most people are more comfortable with face-to-face communication.
D. it is possible for correspondence to get lost within a large organization.
6.According to the article, what is the effect of receiving large amounts of written information?A. It is counter-productive. "
B. It causes conflict in a company.
C. It leads to changes in work patterns.
D. It makes the main points more difficult to identify.
Directions: There are ten incomplete sentences in this section. For each sentence there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the ONE that best completes the sentence. Then write down the right answer in the brackets for each sentence. This section totals 10 points, one point for each sentence.
( )1.We can supply all the bicycles you required ____________ stock and are arranging shipment by M.V. Mermaid.
A. for B. from C. to D. against
( )2.We would like to remind you that the __________ L/C must reach us before March 10
so that we can make shipment in good time.
A. covering B. cover C. covered D. being covered
( )3.We have received your letter of 28 March, ___________ us to modify the previous arrangements for the shipment of the captioned order.
A. asked B. to ask C. being asked D. asking
( )4.In our letter of May 5, we made __________ clear that shipment is to be effected in June.
A. you B. them C. that D. it
( )5.We always deal _______________ payment by sight L/C.
A. with B. in C. at D. on
( )6.This offer is _____________ to your reply reaching us before the 20th of February.
A. subjecting B. subject C. subjected D to subject
( )7.____________ we are appreciating the good quality of your black tea, we regret that your price appears to be on the high side.
A. While B. When C. However D. Therefore
( )8.We hereby authorize you to ___________ on us at 60 days after sight to the extent of USD20,000.00.
A. open B. establish C. draw D. build
( )9.If parties to a contract desire to settle disputes, an arbitration clause is usually made in the contract well before a dispute _____________ .
A. rises B. arises C. look D. appear
( )10.Some customers requested us to _____________ our price because they considered it
A. put down B. get down C. take down D. bring down
Investing thousands of pounds in the recruitment and training of each new graduate recruit may be just the beginning. Choosing the wrong candidate may leave an organisation paying for years to come.
Few companies will have escaped all of the following failures: people who panic at the first sight of stress; those with long impressive qualifications who seem incapable of learning; hypochondriacs whose absentee record becomes astonishing; and the unstable person later discovered to be a thief or worse.
Less dramatic, but just as much a problem, is the person who simply does not come up to expectations, who does not quite deliver; who never becomes a high-flier or even a steady performer; the employee with a fine future behind them.
The first point to bear in mind at the recruitment stage is that people don’t change. Intelligence levels decline modestly, but change little over their working life. The same is true of abilities, such as learning languages and handling numbers.
Most people like to think that personality can change, particularly the more negative features such as anxiety, low esteem, impulsiveness or a lack of emotional warmth. But data collected over 50 years gives a clear message: still stable after all these years. Extroverts become slightly less extroverted; the acutely shy appear a little less so, but the fundamentals remain much the same. Personal crises can affect the way we cope with things: we might take up or drop drink, drugs, religion or relaxation techniques, which can be have pretty dramatic effects. Skills can be improved, and new ones introduced, but at rather different rates. People can be groomed for a job. Just as politicians are carefully repackaged through dress, hairstyle and speech specialists, so people can be sent on training courses, diplomas or experimental weekends. But there is a cost to all this which may be more than the price of the course. Better to select for what you actually see rather than attempt to change it.
( )1. The purpose of this passage is to give managers the advice that .
A. Employers should select candidates for their potential.
B. Employers should select candidates for what they are rather than for their potential.
C. Employers should select the newly graduated and send them on training courses, diplomas or experimental weekends.
D. Employers should select experienced candidates to avoid spending thousands of pounds in training.
( )2. According to the passage, which of the following statements is true? .
A. Absolutely, People don’t change during their working lives.
B. Generally, people change to a large extent during their working lives.
C. Fundamentally, people stay the same during their working lives.
D. Normally, people don’t change at all during their working lives.
( )3. What does a fine future behind them (line 3 of paragraph 3) means? .
A. Some people will certainly have a promising future though they are not very competent in their present work.
B. Some people don’t have any potential for their work though they are employed.
C. Some people can have a bright future though they can’t do their work well.
D. Some people have potential when they are employed, but never realize that potential.
( )4. According to the passage, people’s basic abilities like language learning and numeracy .
A. change little over their working life.
B. never change over their working life.
C. change fundamentally over their working life.
D. change profoundly over their working life.
( )5. The word deliver (line 2 of paragraph 3) means .
A. to take goods to the places or people they are addressed to
B. to give a speech
C. to do what you promised to do
D. to help a woman to give birth to a baby.